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Knowledge Pipeline

by:Mayer     2020-08-12
Pipe is pipe, pipe connectors and valves for the transport links into the gas, liquid or solid particles in the fluid with the device. Typically, the fluid by the blowers, compressors, pumps and boilers pressurized, the pressure from the pipeline flow of low-voltage Office Department can also use its own pressure or gravity fluid delivery. The most common are welding maclune. Pipeline so widely used, mainly used in feed water, drainage, heating, for gas, long distance transportation of oil and gas, agriculture, irrigation, hydraulic works and a variety of industrial devices. When the fluid flow is known, the diameter depends on the flow rate or to allow to allow the frictional resistance (pressure drop). Flow rate of large diameter is small, but increasing the pressure drop value. Therefore, the velocity can save a large investment in pipeline infrastructure, but the power equipment such as pumps and compressors operating energy cost increases. In addition, if the velocity is too large, there may be some other unfavorable factors. Diameter should be based on capital investment, therefore, running costs and other technical factors considered decision. Pipes, pipe joints, valves and equipment on the link between the way out to take over from the nature of fluid, pressure and temperature, and pipe material, size and installation sites and other factors, mainly threaded connection, flange connection, commitment plug connection, and four methods of welding. Thread connection is mainly suitable for small diameter pipes. Do not overlook the role of compression fittings. Connection, the general part to wrap the thread connection with fluorine plastic seal, or paint Houqi, sealing around the flax and other materials to prevent leakage. Pressure of 1.6 MPa or more, the general increase in the tube end sealing gasket. This connection method is simple and can be removed heavy equipment, subject to the appropriate place in the pipe installation wood joints to facilitate disassembly. Flange for large diameter pipes. According to the fluid nature of the connection time, pressure and temperature, choose different flange and sealing gaskets, use gasket clamping bolt remain sealed. The need for frequent disassembly of the tube and pipe and equipment segment was to link the local, mostly with flange connection. Socket connection is mainly used for cast iron pipe, concrete pipe, clay pipes and couplings for connection between only applies to low ambient temperature conditions in the work of water supply, drainage and gas pipes. Connection, the general contractor jack in the first tank fill flax, cotton, or asbestos rope, asbestos cement or lead and then use the fill material fact, can also fill in the bearing socket rubber sealing ring, so good flexible, allowing a small amount of pipe movement. Welding strength and sealing connection is best for a variety of channels, the provincial labor and materials, but the removal must be cut off the tube and pipe couplings. Also, you can use the stop valve. The city's water supply, drainage, heating, for gas pipelines and long-distance oil and gas pipelines are mostly laid in the ground, and the process plant to facilitate the operation and maintenance of pipelines, more than laying on the ground. Pipeline access, support, slope and drain discharge, compensation, insulation and heating, corrosion and cleaning, identification with the painting and safety, both for laying the ground or underground installation are important issues. Ground pipelines should be avoided with road, rail and waterway crossing. When they can not avoid the cross, at the intersection across the height should allow the safe passage of pedestrians and travel. Underground pipes laid along the roads generally, the various channels to maintain proper distance between, for the installation and maintenance; heating pipe insulation surface, laying pipe in the trench or protection, should avoid being crushed and the soil pipe can be expanded to Mobile. Pipeline may be subject to many kinds of external force, including its own weight, fluid action in the tube side thrust, wind and snow loads, soil pressure, thermal expansion and contraction caused by thermal stress, vibration loads and seismic disasters. To ensure the strength and stiffness of the pipeline, you must set all kinds of support (hanging) aircraft, such as the activities of support, fixation, orientation and other support brackets and springs. Stent set according to pipe diameter, material, pipe wall thickness and loading conditions determine. Fixation is used to control the pipeline section of thermal elongation, so that even the work of expansion joints; guide bracket so that tube for axial movement only, in order to rule out the condensate, steam and other water and gas pipelines should be a certain degree of slope, usually not small in thousandths. In addition, you can use fitting mold. For gravity flow of underground drains, slope is not less than five thousandths. Water vapor or other gas pipeline set to drain at the lowest point or trap, some of the gas pipeline also has gas-water separator, drain fluid in time to prevent the Generation of the water hammer and impede gas flow. Water or other liquid with the exhaust pipe at the highest point of installation, remove accumulated in the pipes of the air or other gases to prevent air resistance caused by abnormal operation. Channels, such as not free to stretch, it will have an enormous additional stress. Therefore, large temperature changes in the pipeline and the need to have the freedom to shift the temperature pipeline, need to set the expansion joint, so that compensation for the pipeline expansion to eliminate additional stress. For steam pipes, heat pipes, cold pipes as well as anti-burning, freezing pipes required, need to use outside in the pipe insulation materials, which prevent the pipe internal heat (cold) the amount of loss or freeze. For some high freezing point of liquid pipelines, in order to prevent the solidification of liquid is too viscous or affect the transportation, but also for heating and insulation. Commonly used insulation materials are cement perlite, glass wool, rock wool and diatomaceous earth such as asbestos. In order to prevent soil erosion, underground metal pipe surface to be coated anti-rust paint or tar, asphalt and other anti-corrosion coating, or impregnated asphalt coated glass fabric and flax. Buried in corrosive soils of low resistance to be set in the pipeline cathodic protection devices to prevent corrosion. Ground steel pipe to prevent corrosion, the surface coating over a variety of rust. Various channels should be cleaned before use, some of the pipeline should be regularly cleaned inside. Better still ppr pipe fitting. In order to facilitate cleaning, the pipe set a filter or air wash clean hole. In the long distance transportation of oil and gas pipelines, to clear the pipe with cleaning device on a regular basis within the accumulation of dirt, this set dedicated to cleaning devices to send and receive devices. When the pipeline more categories, in order to facilitate the operation and maintenance of the pipe surface, the color of the paint coating to provide for identification. For example, the steam pipe with a red, light blue and so on compressed air pipelines. To ensure the safe operation of pipeline accidents and incidents in a timely manner to stop the expansion, except in the pipe measurement and control instrumentation and valves installed, the pipeline has also taken some important special security measures, such as gas pipelines and long-distance transportation of oil and gas pressure relief valve installed pipeline accident or emergency cut off valve. Them in the event of catastrophic accidents can automatically stop the delivery in a timely manner in order to reduce disaster losses.
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